Friday, January 16, 2015

A Museum Visit That Inspires More Questions than Answers







Years ago, I visited Auschwitz and Birkenau and witnessed an emotion-filled reunion inside the camp in front of the firing wall.

They were survivors from the camp 50 years prior, now walking through the camp together.

That day has never left my mind, and the words of Elie Wiesel ring true in my ears that as teachers, we must be witnesses and pass that along to our students.

To commemorate this month marking the 70th anniversary of the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, the Holocaust Museum in Washington, D.C., is hosting a special exhibition.

A cold and rainy day lent the perfect solemnity to my experience, and I was led through the exhibit by a wonderful guide named Scott, himself a Jew with familial ties to the Holocaust. (The Holocaust was the "state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945.)

The premise of the current special exhibit is to question the role of complicity, while emphasizing the fact that we are all individuals who make decisions. Whether through action or inaction, we ultimately decide. And when we know, when we learn, we have a responsibility. Just what that responsibility is, according to Elie Wiesel, Holocaust survivor and author, is individual: "Each individual must answer that question for himself or herself."
A Roma Gypsy wagon; a Jewish footbridge in Poland where Jews
were not allowed to walk on the "non-Jewish Polish streets"; Raul Hilberg's
quote near the entrance of the Special Exhibition. 

The museum as a whole is filled with rich artifacts and photography. It will take hours to absorb all that is contained within. There is a long and thorough history of anti-semitism and subsequent behavior throughout history until what seems to be the most well-known era of Adolf Hitler and his imposed beliefs.

Hitler’s actions were systematic, inhumane and complexly heartbreaking. But how was he able to carry out all that he did, unless he had help? With not merely a blind eye, but onlookers and bystanders who played a more active role. There were 600,000+ Jews in Germany, within a population of 6 million. Although a small percentage, the Jews were active in their communities, they were intellectuals, successful businessmen/women, Nobel prize winners, and thinkers who were deeply religious. Museum photos abound with Jews and non-Jews intermingling—dancing, hanging out, sharing social space…so it seems the Jews were tolerated when they were needed. Otherwise, they became ready scapegoats for misfortunes.
Titles for various parts of the exhibition, and photos from the
Ejszyszki/ Eishishok Shtetl in Lithuania.  
The Museum provokes questioning and thinking, so plan for the time to absorb its offerings if you go. There is no way I can do their exhibit justice, but I will provide a peek. As you read some of the questions that came to my mind, think how relevant they are, still, today in 2015.


When does a lie become truth?

How does someone go about de-basing a mass group of people? De-humanizing them?

Why did some Jews send relief to their peers who needed it, while others felt new Jewish immigrants would threaten their own livelihood?

How can a piece of paper with a stamp on it make all the difference
between life and death?


A prominent question was “Does presence make one complicit?”

Between 1933-1941, after Hitler had come to power, there was nowhere to send the Jews away from Germany. There were 70-80,000 Jews in Warsaw, one of the highest numbers in Eastern Europe at the time, so there was no more room.  The United States shrugged it off, claiming it was a European problem.

Something had to be done, in the eyes of Hitler. Photographs show Germans, delighted to partake in auctions of items that had belonged to the Jews, while others watched from their windows with bemusement as Jews were taken away en masse—saying nothing, not bothered in the least. As if they were leaning out to have a pleasant conversation with their neighbor.

Other photographs depict neighbors executing their Jewish neighbors. Thousands of atrocities were carried out on Jews by those who knew them, and had often spent social time together. Still others showed pictures of neighbors who reported Jewish friends and neighbors “because it was the right thing to do”, because they feared punishment, because they “didn’t want to lose [their] job”, or because “it was the law so I had to”. Some turned in the Jews to “teach them” a moral lesson. Jews and non-Jews who were in relations were informed one day that their Jew/ non-Jew relationship was illegal, and public examples were made of these couples. Hair was crudely shaved from the male and female’s heads before being paraded throughout town, thanks to such arbitrary laws.

                       

Lest you think that everyone was complicit in the Jews’ demise, there is an entire wall of names of people from many different countries who hid their Jewish neighbors or otherwise helped them. (picture on the right) This newlywed couple in the picture on the left is one example—they hid as many as 36 at once in their home and dug escape tunnels into the woods, despite the dangers. When asked why, the husband simply claimed, “My wife and I were brought up to have respect for life.”

                 


There are thousands of others who did the same, even German soldiers and police who hid Jews and helped them escape. Diplomats bucked the system to provide visas to Jewish refugees, despite the danger of doing so. There’s even one story of a young non-Jewish man who was arrested for wearing fake decorated Stars of David on his clothing to mock what he considered the absurdity of it all. Others joined the underground war against the Germans, and there were many Jews who conducted uprisings themselves, even in the camps. Courage and bravery had many faces. Not everyone was complicit. 

There are so many photos, testimonies, and thought-provoking artifacts in the museum itself. This special exhibition is a great place to start before exploring the permanent exhibitions. In the rest of the museum, you will find information about Hitler's rise and service as chancellor prior to the war, and how he managed to mobilize an entire nation via hatred. 

From there, you can see how thinking and policy "evolved", from persecuting the Jews, to separating them in harsh ghettos, to annihilating them. 
A view from inside the train car that held up to 100 people,
sometimes more, on torturous journeys in extreme
conditions. Many deaths occurred from the journey alone.

German freight cars held as many as 100 people, while entire trains
usually carried anywhere between 1,000-5,000 people. The weight
would slow travel down to 30mph, making the journey even worse.

Shoes from victims of the Holocaust. 
Near the end of your museum visit, you can see more stories of those who risked punishment and death to save the Jews, and chronicles of what has happened postwar to find some sense of justice for those who perished and those who survived. There are more resources to learn about how current issues relate, such as events in Darfur, Syria, Congo, and Sudan, because genocide has not stopped. 
In the Hall of Remembrance. 


There is a children's tile wall and remembrance hall, along with an exhibition about real events based on children's experiences specifically--a good place to spur conversations with younger teens. 

Learn more at their website: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. They have resources for educators, translated materials, photos and information galore. Discover opportunities to act and respond, and to explore your own understanding. 

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

My First Semester in Highschool: Evaluated? Check.

For those of you who know me, you know I've taught all grades K-12, but it's been a long while since I've been in the highschool full-time. This year, I requested a local transfer from my elementary "home" to the highschool because I felt I needed the stretch. It's not that I didn't feel challenged at the elementary level, but more that I really wanted to understand what happened after the kids left grade 5.

I'm in a unique position, since many of the students I see were also students of mine in 2nd and 3rd grade. But, that's for another post. ;-)

I've been in co-teaching roles here so I did not get surveys out for those classes, but I did survey my newcomers.

And yes--for those who always ask me this: I was nervous doing it! (It's even more nervewracking to post it publicly, but I feel there's value to what they said, and I have found value in seeking honest feedback.) These are older kids, far more fickle and dramatic on some days than my younger kids, but also more astute and honest, for which I am grateful.

This year, since I have students who benefit from the one-to-one initiative and have their own laptops, I was finally able to try a Google survey with them. Many of them had never logged into their email accounts before coming to my class, so we have made some small technological strides. It also indicates room for growth in using tech tools within our school.

The Google survey has a convenient space under the question/ statement for translations:


A snapshot of what the Google survey looks like.

I know that many of you have multiple languages represented, but this modification is something to consider. (especially if you use a translation tool, you can cut and paste and make 2-3 versions quickly) It was still challenging for my students to read the answers, so we went through each together. Surveys are nice because they offer several options--multiple choice, select one response, or select multiple responses from a list like the one above. Additionally, they have space for short answer responses, or longer ones. You can also mark which questions are required, so they can't exit the survey without having answered them. 

For all of my newcomers, this type of survey was a first-time experience, especially the last question, which was a short answer response. 


My Spanish is not, ahem, the best in the world (but I do love learning a little of each of my students' languages--that's my nerd hobby), but I told them to write as much as they could in English, but use their native language. 

Results?:
  • All but one said they learned "a lot". One said "a little". 
  • All admitted I was "very knowledgeable". (whew.)
  • Favorite activities were: writing, working on computers, and labelling pictures
  • Least favorite activities were: reading, writing, and penpals
  • Activities they learned the most from were: reading, writing, labelling pictures, and drawing ( I find it interesting when activities they learn the most from are also their least favorite--the optimist in me likes to think it's a labor of love, or that they understand the value of hard work!) 
  • Activities they learned the least from: our penpal experience  (at least we tried)
  • Surprises: mixed bag on our cooking--some really loved but a couple really did not enjoy it (I would have never known that based on their behavior in the kitchen!)
  • Suggestions for me: many were about continuing on with their favorite activities or getting rid of their least favorite
  • The most substantive comments were for me to be "more demanding" with the students and to give them more work! 
So, in preparation for next semester, I am re-thinking my expectations, their workload, and what I ask of them in class, as well as outside of class. Some of them will move into my ESL 1 class, but many of them will also be in my World History class as newcomers. Challenges ahead, but fostering this kind of communication definitely helps. 

I've been slack on keeping up my blog this semester--look for more notes next semester from co-teaching adventures in a World History class, as well as my ESL classes.

I would love to know how others conduct surveys and foster honest conversations in your classrooms!




Saturday, January 3, 2015

Sunday, November 30, 2014

Anything less...


I just love this quote. "To give anything less than your best is to sacrifice the gift."
What gifts do you bring to this world, and to others?

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Picture Word Inductive Model with Highschool Newcomers

I last posted about using PWIM with my elementary learners, and how much fun the process always seems to be for both me and my students. PWIM has a way of drawing students in, engaging them, and maintaining that engagement while accessing and internalizing loads of vocabulary.

Now that I'm at the highschool level, working with older newcomers, I wanted to share another series of the PWIM process with my readers. Our theme for the week was the kitchen (after talking about different places in the school), home to many rich vocabulary words and concepts. For the picture, I simply took one of the student foods lab. Here's how we broke it down.



As always, I modeled writing the words on the board. (I've also used the smartboard, then just saved the screen, but really prefer using half a poster board so I can continue to use it.

Here is mine (and yes, it's in color). If you don't have access to multiple color copies, at least get yours in color to accentuate details.

Note that we also use simple sketches to add more words as we think of them. (Nothing fancy here!)



The next day, we reviewed the words. I asked simple where and what questions for the students to demonstrate their understanding and what they remembered. Some students then felt confident enough to ask their own where/ what questions modeled after mine. This is also a good time to add additional words the students have thought of.

Students then sorted their words into different categories. The sort was open, and I provided examples using a document projector. You can see that this student divided his words according to appliances, things that need water, storage, and materials. Of course, this is just one way to categorize. I like starting with closed sorts, where we choose categories together. Once they understand the concept, they enjoy the challenge of open sorts. This is always tough for them, but it does make them think about the meaning, spelling patterns, part of speech, etc.--much more thought-provoking than typical vocabulary work!



If you feel your students need it, or if you are learning new sentence patterns, provide sentence frames for them to respond to "How do these words go together?":
  • These words go together because they are both _________________
  • These words can go together because they all (have, do, make, etc.) ________________
  • I believe these words go together...
And then, as students share out, practice agreeing and disagreeing:
  • I agree that those words go together.
  • I disagree. I think those words do not go together (because....)
  • What a good idea! I didn't think of that!
The next day, students filled in a cloze passage using the vocabulary words from the labeled picture. Students first listened to me read the entire passage, filled in, then they completed it independently. Once they finished, they read their passages to me, one by one. It was now a fluency passage, and they would practice reading it for "time" the next day. There were also sentences geared toward the cafeteria aspect of "the kitchen", which required them to draw pictures to demonstrate comprehension.


x

The fourth day, we actually went to a project lab kitchen for students in our school, so that we could cook and use different materials and ingredients. Students had a simple recipe, and were required to determine ingredients and cooking utensils/ materials. They worked in a group to accomplish this, with the recipe and graphic organizer separating materials, ingredients and steps.


They then worked together to translate the steps of the recipe before actually using it to make their dish. Once they had determined the steps, they began to measure, mix, and cook under watchful eyes.


While the food was cooking, we re-wrote the steps together, now using the past tense, on their recipe papers. 

On the fifth day, students reviewed with another cloze passage, using vocabulary words from day one, plus the words from the ingredients and materials lists. At the bottom of the page, you can see they also drew a sketch showing what they did in the kitchen that day. Their simple requirement was to use two new vocabulary words within one sentence. This student chose to label other parts of her picture.




The following week (day six), for their final assessment, students chose 2 pictures from the ones I had taken in the kitchen and had uploaded onto their computers.  Students wrote captions for them after uploading them into their kidblogs. (which is something new I'm trying this year!)

Here are some links for you to see their work:

We Are in the Kitchen
Fruit Dessert

Although the blogging part took more time than simply having them write a paragraph like I've done in the past, the students enjoyed it, and it was challenging enough to keep them engaged, without overwhelming them.

As an extension, some students used the Quicktime audio to record themselves reading the cloze passage as well as their own sentences about the pictures. We were going to upload those into their blogs, too, but the filters prevented us from doing so.

I hope this gives you some ideas for what PWIM can look like in a highschool newcomer class. These took about 40 min/ day of a 90 minute block. Our one day of cooking lasted the entire 90 minutes, but that was a busy day--students brought their work to the kitchen so we could work while the food was cooking.